L’Impact de la Culture and Europe considers a new orthodoxy: culture–led development or regeneration engenders significantly contribute to people’s economic and social situations, notably through employment and the strengthening of social cohesion and collective identity. But what data supports these overtly positive conclusions? This book critically analyses how the new orthodoxy is sustained and which aspects are perceived as problematic. It focuses on four case studies in Europe: Salford and Liverpool in the UK, Krakow in Poland and Lille in France. Key recommendations are detailed in the conclusion, to improve models of regeneration and evaluation.